He is buried alongside his owner, but also next to Jacob Israel Belmonte, once the community’s richest businessman. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.93. New Castle is served by the Colonial School District and the New Castle Public Library. In 2013, a statue for Elieser was erected outside the Jewish cemetery by Opo Kondreman, an organization that aims to preserve the heritage of Netherlanders from the former Dutch colony of Suriname in South America. “We were both victims of the slave trade,” Coronel said. 2 Claes VERBRACK, with his wife. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. In June the town holds its annual Separation Day celebration. Loy died last year. During its first decades, New Netherland was settled rather slowly, partially as a result of policy mismanagement by the WIC and partially as a result of conflicts with Native Americans. Stuyvesant retains nominal con-trol over the Swedish Nation north of Christina River. For the past decade they’ve been coming to Beth Haim, the oldest Jewish cemetery in the Netherlands, because of the discovery here in 2002 of Holland’s earliest known grave of a former slave. New Castle was originally settled by the Dutch West India Company in 1651, under the leadership of Peter Stuyvesant, on the site of a former aboriginal village, "Tomakonck" ("Place of the Beaver"), to assert their claim to the area based on a prior agreement with the aboriginal inhabitants of the area. New Castle is a city in New Castle County, Delaware, United States, six miles (10 km) south of Wilmington, and situated on the Delaware River. New Amstel County was renamed to New Castle County by November 11, 1674. Elieser’s owners did not come from South America but straight from Portugal, from where they and thousands of other Jews fled in the 16th century to escape the Inquisition for the more tolerant Netherlands. “Moses freed the Jewish slaves, but then the Jews were the cruelest slave owners in Suriname. This marked the end of the Swedish colony in Delaware as an official entity, but it remained a semi-autonomous unit within the New Netherland colony and the cultural, social, and religious influence of the Swedish settlers remained strong. In 2012, in search of his grave and armed with a cemetery record and a probe rod, Hagoort and the late Rabbi Hans Rodrigues Pereira found a black stone slab that appeared to be blank, the inscription erased by time and the elements. Delaware Aviation Hall of Fame Museum is located in hangar. This marked the end of the Swedish colony in Delaware as an official entity, but it remained a semi-autonomous unit within the New Netherland colony and the cultural, social, and religious influence of the Swedish settlers remained strong. “The rabbi brought a bucket of water, poured it over the stone and the [Portuguese-language] text revealed itself: ‘The grave of the good servant Elieser.'”. In recent years, institutions and leaders of Dutch Jewry have openly debated for the first time the issue of. Shortly after Matthias Claesson's arrival on the Delaware, the New Amstel colony was taken over by the English. That means Elieser was converted to Judaism and widely accepted as Jewish, otherwise he would not have been buried inside the Jewish cemetery, Hagoort told the Reformatorisch Dagblad daily in 2012. During the Second Anglo-Dutch War, English victors took over the entire New Netherland colony and renamed it New Castle. by Louis Farrakhan of the Nation of Islam. “It’s about respecting another person’s belief,” the Opo Kondreman activist said. The per capita income for the city was $24,052. In recent years, caretakers have exposed and excavated only a handful of “culturally significant” headstones from the mud, according to Geke Beek, the Jewish community’s caretaker of Beth Haim. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the city is 5,285.[4]. But an exception was made during Elieser Day. 1664-The Dutch surrender New Amsterdam to the British, who rename it New … It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1967. This area contains one of the highest concentrations of well-preserved buildings dating from the 17th to early 19th centuries. . Males had a median income of $40,153 versus $31,571 for females. This marked the end of the Swedish colony in Delaware as an official entity, but it remained a semi-autonomous unit within the New Netherland colony and the cultural, social, and religious influence of the Swedish settlers remained strong. They were Hoarkill County, which today is Sussex County, Delaware; New Amstel County, which is today New Castle County, Delaware; and Upland County, which was later partitioned between New Castle County, Delaware and the new Colony of Pennsylvania. So, the many buildings of historic New Castle look much as they did in the colonial and Federal periods. This colony, christened ‘New Amstel,’ was located on territory conquered from the Swedes on the Delaware River, some two hundred kilometers south of Manhattan. An area of what used to be Dutch Guyana, the Jewish Savannah had 40 Jewish-owned plantations with at least 5,000 slaves and a Jewish community of several hundred that was destroyed in a slave uprising in 1832. This helped the New Castle economy to further boom; however, by 1840, rail lines were in place between Philadelphia and Baltimore, which had a stop in Wilmington, thus leaving New Castle to deal with a substantial decline in traffic and revenue. For Lydia Hagoort, the historian who discovered the gravestone, Elieser’s life story also reflects his acceptance as an equal and integration into the Jewish Portuguese family that owned him. The Dutch conquered the entire colony of New Sweden the following year and rechristened the fort Nieuw Amstel ("New Amstel"). faith that combines pagan and Catholic traditions. New York City was originally called New Amsterdam, and New Castle, Delaware was once known as New Amstel. About 26,000 headstones and human remains lie submerged under the mud – an unfortunate result of how Sephardic headstones, which are traditionally placed horizontally, have fared over the centuries in the soft Dutch soil. James then captured the New Amsterdam colony with an overwhelming show of force. Moreover, de Pina’s family must have paid extra to have him buried alongside them in a prestigious plot. The discovery embarrassed Dutch historians — they had declared that slavery never existed in the Netherlands. New Castle was originally settled by the Dutch West India Company in 1651, under the leadership of Peter Stuyvesant, on the site of a former aboriginal village, "Tomakonck" ("Place of the Beaver"), to assert their claim to the area based on a prior agreement with the aboriginal inhabitants of the area. Slave auctions were deliberately not scheduled on Jewish holidays there, according to Marc Lee Raphael, a historian at the College of William & Mary. A man named Elieser, he died in 1629 and was brought here from Portugal by his Jewish masters, who are buried right alongside him. The New Castle Historic District is an area approximately 4 by 5 blocks square in the center of town with about 500 historic buildings that date from c. 1700 to 1940. Delaware formally broke from Pennsylvania in 1704. It is also a lightning rod for occasional controversy. Her institution understands that his grave is an important site for the Black community and facilitates their commemorations there, she said. This conference will summarize our present state of knowledge about the New Sweden Colony, its European background, and the lives of New Sweden’s settlers and their descendants under Dutch and English rule. To Sergio Berrenstein, an activist with Opo Kondreman, the grave is a substitute for the graves of ancestors who were forced into slavery and whose burial place is unknown. New Amstel was considered subordinate to New Netherland as was the patroonship Rensslaerswijck. Private schools located in New Castle include: Serviam Girls Academy, St. Peter's Catholic School and Delaware Valley Classical School. [14], The New Castle Court House, the Green, and the Sheriff's House are parts of First State National Historical Park, a unit of the National Park System. According to Drescher, Jews controlled about 17% of the Caribbean trade in Dutch colonies. Created on Sepember 12, 1673 as one of three countylike courts that became an original county. [13] The historic district then covered 135 acres (55 ha) of area and includes Amstel House and Old Courthouse which are separately listed on the NRHP. Some of the visitors lay small stones on Elieser’s grave, as is customary in Judaism. 4 … New Netherland led by Peter Stuyvesant is a custom civilization mod by Vanadius, with contributions from JFD, DuskJockey, OrderOfOlav, Senshi, DarthKyofu, and BanthaFood. New Castle is the site where William Penn, Duke of York first set foot in the New World. A freight line operated by the Norfolk Southern Railway passes through New Castle. He is buried alongside his owner, but also next to Jacob Israel Belmonte, once the community’s richest businessman. Berrenstein said he appreciates that both Jews and Blacks have been persecuted. In a post-colonial society that is still burdened by its complicity both in the Holocaust and the slave trade, Elieser’s grave has emerged as a multifaceted symbol of emancipation and a unique meeting place for the kingdom’s oldest ethnic minorities. This marked the end of the Swedish colony in Delaware as an official entity, but it remained a semi-autonomous unit within the New Netherland colony and the cultural, social, and religious influence of the Swedish settlers remained strong. [16], The town attended a World Summit of towns called Newcastle held in Newcastle-under-Lyme in England for six days from 17 June 2006. At New Amstel, Hudde excelled and served at various times, often simultaneously, as the colony’s chief clerk, sheriff, surveyor, and magistrate. Later, New Castle became the eastern terminus of the New Castle and Frenchtown Railroad, the second-oldest rail line in the country, launched in 1828 with horse-drawn rail cars, then converting to steam power when an engine was purchased from Great Britain in 1832. At the cemetery, they play drums, dance, recite Christian prayers and observe rites of Winti, a traditional Afro-Surinamese faith that combines pagan and Catholic traditions. Named “Elieser Day” in his memory, the new pilgrimage is centered around the former slave’s gravestone inside the 406-year-old Beth Haim cemetery, a 10-acre swath of swampy meadow. Does Elieser’s grave symbolize anything for Beth Haim? In 1680, New Castle was conveyed to William Penn by the Duke of York by livery of seisin and was Penn's landing place when he first set foot on American soil on October 27, 1682. The discovery of Elieser’s grave also made headlines and reached Perez Jong Loy, Berrenstein’s brother, who decided to start a pilgrimage. [19] The electric department is a member of the Delaware Municipal Electric Corporation. On April 28, 1961, an F3 tornado hit the north side. Elieser came to the Netherlands in 1610 as a slave to the family of Paulo de Pina. In Israel, a Holocaust survivor has made falafel a symbol of Jewish resilience, Author who railed against Jews quits as speaker for Dutch Holocaust commemoration following storm of criticism, In Azerbaijan, patriotic Jewish soldiers are poster children of the war with Armenia, Austrian government, Jewish community vaccinate survivors on Holocaust Remembrance Day, Biden recalls Charlottesville march on Holocaust Remembrance Day, Anti-Semitic incidents drop by 50% in France, but physical assaults remain almost unchanged, Facebook debuts new fact check box to combat Holocaust denial, ADL: Twitch, the gaming network, is most effective social platform at curbing Holocaust denial, Antwerp mayor says haredi Orthodox ignoring COVID measures has triggered anti-Semitism — and it could get worse. During the 1650s, the … Before that, Black and Jewish leaders disagreed over whether Elieser’s grave represents the horrors of slavery or the possibilities for tolerance. The nearest airport to New Castle with commercial air service is the Philadelphia International Airport in Philadelphia. These tours, called "A Day in Olde New Castle", are usually held on the third Saturday of May. OUDERKERK AAN DE AMSTEL, ... the new pilgrimage is centered around the former slave’s gravestone inside the 406-year-old Beth Haim cemetery, a 10 … For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.6 males. Stuyvesant retains nominal con-trol over the Swedish Nation north of Christina River. The racial makeup of the city was 77.48% White, 20.20% African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 0.84% from other races, and 0.84% from two or more races. Sergio Berrenstein stands next to the grave of Elieser and his master at the entrance to the Jewish cemetery in Ouderkerk aan de Amstel, Nov. 20, 2020. As of the census[10] of 2000, there were 4,862 people, 2,012 households, and 1,339 families residing in the city. Coronel added that many in the small town also resisted the plan for Beth Haim. The line traversed the Delmarva Peninsula, running to the Elk River, Maryland, from where passengers changed to packet boats for further travel to Baltimore and points south. “In principle it’s not allowed to say prayers that are not Jewish inside the cemetery, and it’s also not allowed to play music,” she told JTA. “But as far as Beth Haim is concerned, Elieser is just another Jewish person who’s buried here.”, By submitting the above I agree to the privacy policy and terms of use of JTA.org, Sergio Berrenstein stands next to the statue of Elieser at the entrance to the Jewish cemetery in Ouderkerk aan de Amstel, the Netherlands, Nov. 20, 2020. The settlement of New Sweden, captured in 1655, encroached on its southern flank, while its northern border was redrawn to surly accommodate an expanding New England. In 1664, after English Colonel Richard Nicolls captured New Amsterdam, Robert Carr was sent to the Delaware River settlements. Also nearby are Buena Vista, Glebe House, The Hermitage, New Castle Ice Piers, Penn Farm of the Trustees of the New Castle Common, and Swanwyck, all listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Beverwijck, once a center of the fur trade, is now Albany, New York. These facts and others were on display in a 2015 exhibition on the subject by the Jewish Cultural Quarter of Amsterdam, and served as the basis for a 2014 book by Lody van de Kamp, a well-known Orthodox Dutch rabbi. The Dutch conquered the entire colony of New Sweden the following year and rechristened the fort Nieuw-Amstel ("New Amstel"). Loy died last year. Sentences that sound like transcriptions of taped lectures don't help: "In addition he had fined one Anders the Finn a parcel of rye and other essential goods, the lack of which would probably result in the man's death from starvation and that of his wife and children."